How can worldviews linked to different stories and cultures come together and share values? How can people communicate and understand each other when their visions of things are so different? And, in terms of mental pathology, how can one comprehend people whose worldviews, e.g. in the case of delusion, are so far away from the word that one considers “normal”? In order to address these questions we have to return to the concept of Weltanschauung – a concept that in the second half of last century was marginalized in speculative thinking, but that seems fit to describe properly our time.
In the early twentieth century, Karl Jaspers stressed the hermeneutic importance of the concept of Weltanschauung, to which he devoted his Psychology of worldviews, published in 1919. In that work, Jaspers advocated the necessity of a phenomenological analysis of worldviews, which should take into consideration, at the same time, their subjective, objective and intersubjective sides, and their claims to validity.
This volume of Discipline filosofiche is entitled The multiplicity of worldviews, since it aims at inquiring such a notion from the perspective of philosophers, historians of philosophy, psychologists and psychiatrists – that is, scholars whose different theoretical and disciplinary perspectives show, in our view, that the inquiry on the worldviews is primarily a question of meaning. The goal of the essays collected here, then, is to try to open up new perspectives of heuristic analysis, so contributing to the shaping of new, more adequate models of understanding. These essays discuss the worldviews in their entire phenomenological range – from the “normal” to the hallucinated, fanatical, delusional ones – taking them as phenomena that not only express a subjective creation, but also carry within themselves a rearrangement of the surrounding world and a reaction to the cultural, religious, scientific insights of a given horizon of meaning. In order to address the many relevant issues at stake in this discussion, it is urgent to recover a concept – i.e., the concept of worldview – that in the late twentieth century was prematurely neglected, and put it back at the center of the philosophical scene where it belongs.
(click on the titles to view the abstracts)
Stefania Achella, Jann E. Schlimme, Presentazione
Parte I. Genealogie, concetti, confronti
Roberto Garaventa, All’origine dell’idea jaspersiana di Weltanschauung
Giuseppe Cantillo, L’ambivalenza delle Weltanschauungen tra ragione ed esistenza
Csaba Olay, Jaspers’ Begriff der „Weltanschauung“ im Anschluss an Dilthey und Weber
Oliver Immel, Heideggers Stellungnahme zur „Psychologie der Weltanschauungen“ als Wegmarke der Jaspers’schen Existenzphilosophie
Michael Steinmann, Wertung und Wertwiderstand. Selbsterfahrung und die antinomische Struktur der Existenz bei Jaspers und Heidegger
Stefania Achella, Il concetto di “mondo” nella Psychologie der Weltanschauungen
Elena Alessiato, Weltanschauungen e politica
Andrea Staiti, Naturalism as Weltanschauung
Parte II. Pratiche e orientamenti teorici
Jean-Claude Gens, Die Weltanschauung zwischen Ideenflucht und Wahnsinnigkeit
Reinhard Schulz, Praktiken des Verstehens und Weltanschauungsanalyse
Anna Donise, Gli involucri tra forma e vita: per una difesa dell’inautentico
Borut Škodlar, Jan Ciglenečki, Multiple Orientations within the Worldviews in Psychosis and Mysticism: Relevance for Psychotherapy
Jann E. Schlimme, Wahnsinns-Erzählungen. Weltanschauung und lange anhaltende Psychoseerfahrung
Burkhart Brückner, Samuel Thoma, Wahn, Weltanschauung und Habitus. Zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Kritik der Theorie des Wahns im Werk von Karl Jaspers